Peru is the third country in South America for territorial extension (after Brazil and Argentina) and, like other countries in the Andean area, is characterized by significant social inequalities. According to the current Minister of the Ministry of Social Inclusion, Carolina Trivelli, about 27.8% of the population can still be considered in a state of monetary poverty (-4% compared to 2011) while 39.9% is in a situation of poverty. “Structural” Unemployment fuels the phenomenon of emigration towards the city and contributes to the phenomenon of urbanization.
Social exclusion is a phenomenon that shows itself at urban level, but represents a chronic and structural factor in the Andean and Amazonian rural context.The campesinos and natives, in fact, suffer from the terrible conditions of socio-political, economic and environmental deprivation. In isolated and inaccessible natural settings, their life is characterized by continuous challenges for physical and cultural survival. It is estimated that80% of Peruvian women are victims of violence or abuseby theirhusband, that one in three women is a mother who has suffer separation or abandon, that 31.8% of mothers belonging to poorer groups admit touse physical violence to punish their children, that 70% of working women are employed in undeclared work, characterized by low wages, precariousness, absence of contracts and social security.
Violence in Peru is a social problem with serious consequences for health, economy and development of people, and is generally led in silence within the home with terrible consequences. The exercise of one’s power over another person affects the physical, sexual and/or psychological health of those who suffer from it, especially women and children. However, violence is a usually silent problem, affirmed as a daily practice, that is perpetuated from generation to generation.
The problem of family violence is difficult and has a strong effect in the rural areas of Peru; lack of awereness on rights, the invisibility of family violence as a problem and limited access ofthe population and of persons affected by acts of violence to prevention and protection services in rural areas, represent the elements that influence the proliferation of violence in rural communities ofGrau, HipólitoUnanue, S. Maria di Fatimaand indigenous communities ofPayorote and Betsaida in the district ofNauta, in theLoreto region.
In this sense, the project aimed at reducing violence in families with children aged 0-8 yearsin five indigenous communities of the district of Nauta and in the outlying districts of Nauta and Belen. The second aim of the Bernard Van Leer Foundation responds to the same goal of this project and for this reason we have decided to present this proposal for evaluation.
The main strategy of the project is to create a sustainable and arrenged urbanization model with local authorities and civil society that contributes to reducing family violence in the Districts of Iquitos, Belén, Punchana and San JuanBautista.
Contribute to the reduction of family violence and its direct effects on girls, children and adolescents of the Loreto Region
The project is divided in three actions:
• The action aims to strengthen the potential of the population at facing risks; wishes to contribute to the development of new cultural approaches, in the process of recognizing women, children and old people as subjects of law.
• Urban planning and awareness campaigns against violence, against minors and gender are planned for the population and public officials.
•The action offers support to victims of violence from both a psychological and a legal point of view.